Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction (TMD) is a collective term encapsulating conditions that impair the normal functioning of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), muscles, and surrounding structures. Involving pain in the jaw joint and surrounding tissues or limitation in jaw movement, it is often correlated with aural symptoms like tinnitus and vertigo.

The etiology of TMD remains multifactorial, involving biomechanical, neuromuscular, and psychosocial factors. It can manifest as myofascial pain, internal derangement of the TMJ or degenerative joint disease. Though complex in nature, diagnosis principally relies on history taking and clinical examination rather than high-tech imaging.

Treatment strategies for TMD are diverse and range from conservative management such as pharmacotherapy and physical therapy to more invasive procedures like arthrocentesis or surgery. The goal is not only to alleviate symptoms but also to restore normal function.

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